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This post seeks to rectify that situation to some extent. If you're short on time, you can skip the contextual comments I'm about to make and go straight to the list of the six fundamental facts about the chakras that modern yogis don't know. In the Tantrik traditions, from which the concept derives, chakras Skt. Above I said that the West has so far failed to understand chakras.

Since at this point it is nearly impossible to find a form of yoga in India not influenced by Euro-American ideas about it, when I use the term 'Western' I also include most of the teachings on yoga in India today that exist in the English language. Books on the chakras based on sound comprehension of the original Sanskrit sources so far exist only in the academic world. Only you can assess whether that is of any benefit to you. So many! In mature Tantrik Yoga after the year or so , every one of the many branches of the tradition articulated a different chakra system, and some branches articulated more than one.

How many chakras are there really? The chakras aren't like organs in the physical body; they aren't fixed facts that we can study like doctors study neural ganglia with which the chakras were confused in the nineteenth century. The energy body can present, experientially speaking, with any number of energy centers, depending on the person and the yogic practice they're performing.

Having said that, there are a few centers which are found in all systems: specifically, in the lower belly or sexual center, in the heart, and in or near the crown of the head, since these are three places in the body where humans all over the world experience both emotional and spiritual phenomena. For example, if you're doing a five-element practice, you use a five-chakra system see point 6 below.

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If you're internalizing the energy of six different deities, you use a six-chakra system. Duh, right? But this crucial bit of information has not yet reached Western yoga.


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This might be the most important point. But in most of the original Sanskrit sources, we are not being taught about the way things are, we are being given a specific yogic practice: we are to visualize a subtle object made of colored light, shaped like a lotus or a spinning wheel, at a specific point in the body, and then activate mantric syllables in it, for a specific purpose. When you understand this, point 1 above makes more sense. The texts are prescriptive — they tell what you ought to do to achieve a specific goal by mystical means.

The educated yogi should know that all associations of the chakras with psychological states is a modern Western innovation that started with Carl Jung. Each chakra, Judith tells us, is associated with a certain bodily gland, certain bodily malfunctions, certain foods, a certain metal, a mineral, an herb, a planet, a path of yoga, a suit of the tarot, a sephira of Jewish mysticism, and an archangel of Christianity! Judith or her teachers created them based on perceived similarities. That goes also for the essential oils and crystals that other books and websites claim correspond to each chakra.

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The Legend of St. Valentine

Boston: Marsh, Capen, Lyon, and Webb, Beecher, Catherine, and Harriet Beecher Stowe. New York: J. Ford, Bell, Daniel. Glencoe, IL: Free Press, Bellah, Robert. New York: Seabury, Sullivan, Ann Swidler, and Steven M. New York: Harper and Row, Beller, Jonathan. Bellion, Wendy. Bender, Thomas, ed. Community and Social Change in America. Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations: Essays and Reflections. Hannah Arendt. Harry Zohn. New York: Schocken Books, Bennett, Jane.

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Works Cited | Keywords for American Cultural Studies, Second Edition

Bentham, Jeremy. London: Hunt and Clarke, Bercovitch, Sacvan. Bercovitch, Sacvan, and Myra Jehlen, eds. Ideology and Classic American Literature. Berestein, Leslie. Berger, John.

American literature

Ways of Seeing. Berger, Peter. Berger, Peter, and Thomas Luckmann. The Social Construction of Reality.

New York: Doubleday, Bergman, Jill, and Debra Bernardi, eds. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, Berlant, Lauren. Dana D.

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Stolen Child

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